History of the United States Patent Office
The Patent Office Pony
A History of the Early Patent Office
Appendix


[Pg 207]
APPENDIX
SOME CIVIL WAR ERA PATENTS

LIST OF ALL KNOWN PATENTS ISSUED BY CONFEDERATE PATENT OFFICE (What may have been issued after 01/01/1865 is unknown), where * precedes an alternate version in CSA Patent Office Reports [footnote 1]

Patent number, issue date, inventor, address, title of invention

1 08/01/1861 J.H. Van Houten of Savannah, GA for Breech
Loading Gun
2 08/01/1861 Charles E. Brown of Staunton, VA for
Stirrups
3 08/05/1861 George B. Sloat of Richmond, VA for Sewing
Machine Stand, Design
4 08/05/1861 George B. Sloat of Richmond, VA for Work Box
for Sewing Machine, Design
5 08/06/1861 R.W. Habersham of Beaufort, SC for Sabre
Lance
6 08/08/1861 James W. Frazier of Frazierville, SC for
Wheels for Steamboats
7 08/07/1861 John M. Walden of Fort Valley, GA for Switch
for Railroads
8 08/10/1861 Phidello Hall of Springfield, TX for
Automatic Breech Loading Gun
9 08/12/1861 Thomas W. Cofer of Portsmouth, VA for
Revolving Pistol
10 08/13/1861 John D. Evans of Pleasant Hill, GA for
Plough
11 08/15/1861 Armand Preot of Gravel Hill, VA for Lance or
Pike, Attaching to Guns
12 08/17/1861 Frederick J. Gardner of Newbern, NC for
Cartridges
13 08/23/1861 J.R. (*P.R.) Clements of Eufala, AL for
Water Wheels for Mills
14 08/24/1861 Victor Armant of New Orleans, LA for
Apparatus for Clarifying Sugar-Cane Juice
15 08/26/1861 J.L. Jones of Tallyhoe, NC for Carriage
Wheels
16 08/27/1861 J.D. Stewart (*Steward) of Jackson, MS for
Sash Fastener
17 08/29/1861 W.J. Cheshire of Colquitt, GA for Plough
18 09/02/1861 E. Boyle, T. Gamble and E. Macfee of
Richmond, VA for Sword Bayonet Attaching
to Guns
19 09/03/1861 James H. Harkut (*Carcut) of Natchez, MS for
Manufacture of Cannon
20 09/07/1861 J.S. Boothby of Savannah, GA for Tanning
21 09/14/1861 James P. Rankin of Marion, NC for Breech
Loading Gun
22 09/16/1861 Isaac Beirfield of Newberry C.H., SC for
Tanning
[Pg 208]
23 09/19/1861 Ed. Gotthiell of New Orleans, LA for
Percussion Fuses
24 09/27/1861 E.T. Ligon of Demopolis, AL for Breech
Loading Firearms
25 09/28/1861 Benjamin Winter of Buckingham C.H., VA for
Winnowing Machine
26 10/01/1861 John R. Spilman (*Spillman) of Warrenton, VA
for Cartridge Paper
27 10/02/1861 John R. Spilman (*Spillman) of Warrenton, VA
for Device for Making Cartridges
28 10/02/1861 James S. Allums of Cussetta, GA for Cotton
Presses
29 10/04/1861 James Lynch of Petersburg, VA for Cannon
30 10/07/1861 Arthur E. Hall of South Quay, VA for Camp
Bedstead
31 10/10/1861 E.J. Park of Memphis, TN for Tanning
32 10/08/1861 E.N. Davis of Holly Springs, MS for Cotton
Ties
33 10/11/1861 Robert C. Bernard of Rocky Mount, VA for
Gate Fasteners
34 10/15/1861 Joseph Thomas of Batesville, AR for Bullet
Moulds
35 10/15/1861 Daniel Oswalt of Cubahatachie, AL for Breech
Loading Cannon
36 09/01/1861 (*09/10/1861) Alfred G. Hearn of
Arkadelphia, AR for Machine for Measuring
Distances
37 10/24/1861 Hannibal S. Blood of New Orleans, LA for
Switches and Turntables for Horse
Railroads
38 10/29/1861 R.C. Howe of Richmond, VA for Camp Chest and
Bedstead Combined
39 10/30/1861 Henry C. Goodrich of Augusta, GA for Camp
Cot
40 10/02/1861 John P. Gorman of Charlestown, VA for
Cartridge Boxes
41 11/07/1861 William W. Rickenbacker of Beaufort, SC for
Camp Chest and Bed Combined
42 11/07/1861 Cornelius Cox of Cahaba, AL for Cotton
Cleaner
43 11/11/1861 T.W. Moore of Person Co., NC for Plough
44 11/11/1861 M.A. McLeod of Thibodaux, LA for Apparatus
for Clarifying Sugar-Cane Juice
45 11/20/1861 George W. Peabody of Columbus, GA for
Waterproof Composition
46 11/21/1861 R.W. Biggs of Jacksonville, FL for Plough
47 11/22/1861 Andrew Day of Woodville, MS for Plough
48 11/26/1861 John N. Gradick of Fayetteville, AL for
Washing Machine
49 07/23/1861 L.B. Woolfork of Goodlettsville, TN for
Steam Plough
50 11/21/1861 John Schley of Savannah, GA for Horse Power
51 11/27/1861 Columbus A. Rose of Columbia, AL for Hoes
[Pg 209]
52 11/27/1861 (*11/07/1861) B.B. & W.H Stephens of
Dallas, LA for Corn and Cottonstalk Cutter
and Puller
53 12/06/1861 Louise Grady of Norfolk, VA for Washing
Machine
54 10/07/1861 John M. White of Citrouille, AL for Breech
Loading Guns
55 10/11/1861 Marcus A. Tarleton of New Orleans, LA for
Cotton Ties
56 10/14/1861 Henry Domler of Wilmington, NC for Military
Cap
57 10/31/1861 W.B. Martin of Fayetteville, TN for Sewing
Machine
58 01/02/1862 (*01/21/1861) Carl Laquequist of Macon, GA
for Breech Loading Guns
59 01/04/1862 J.S. Peete of Tipton, TN for Cotton Ties
60 01/07/1862 Jacob B. and William L. Platt of Augusta, GA
for Camp Cots
61 01/08/1862 J. Nichols and J. Bennett, assignors to F.
Smith of Memphis, TN for Submarine Battery
62 01/09/1862 R.P. Moore and N. Thompson of Box Springs,
GA for Mosquito and Fly Brush Machine
63 01/09/1862 A.P. (*A.R.) Routt of Somerset, VA for Seed
Planter
64 01/09/1862 John B. Wand of Memphis, TN for Waterproof
Cloth
65 01/20/1862 G.W. Dolbey of Carrollton, MS for Bellows
66 01/29/1862 John Wells of Holly Springs, MS for Cotton
Press
67 01/31/1862 James Peeler of Bartow, GA for Ploughs
68 02/01/1862 M.G. (*G.M.) Rhodes and A. Bingham of
Talladega, AL for Wooden Bottomed Shoes
69 02/03/1862 G.W. Dolbey of Carrollton (*Carrolton), MS
for Machine for Shrinking Wagon Tires
70 01/07/1862 R. Archer of Richmond, VA for Percussion
Fuse
71 02/05/1862 J.F. Finger of Marion C.H., SC (*VA) for
Portable Saw Mill
72 02/05/1862 John Dove of Lauderdale (*Lunderdale) Sta.,
MS for Cotton Cleaning Machine
73 02/05/1862 A. Knapp of Mobile, AL for Mosquito and Fly
Repelling Machine
74 02/15/1862 William Spillman of Mobile, AL for Machine
for Making Lead Pipes and Bars
75 02/21/1862 Benjamin Dennis of Scottsdale, VA for
Evaporator
76 02/25/1862 John D. Love of Wilmington, NC for
Combination Bedstead
77 02/28/1862 William Conner of Natchez, MS for Cotton Tie
78 02/28/1862 Abraham Hagar of New Orleans, LA for Bagasse
Furnace
79 03/11/1862 C.V. Littlepage of Austin, TX for Bullet
Machine
[Pg 210]
80 03/07/1862 B.C. Hattox of Little Rock, AR for Tanning
81 03/14/1862 T.S. (*T.C.) Copes of New Orleans, LA for
Cotton Tie
82 03/14/1862 Thomas Dale of Russellville, KY for Device
for Replacing Locomotives on Railroad Cars
83 03/21/1862 P.R. (*R.P.) Clements of Eufala, AL for
Looms
84 03/21/1862 Charles E. Stuart, J.C. Owing and J.H.C.
Taylor of Alexandria, VA for Instrument
for Sighting Cannon
85 03/24/1862 Gardner Smith of New Orleans, LA for Rail
for Railroad Cars (*Curves)
86 03/25/1862 John M. Morehead of Greensboro, NC for
Heating Apparatus
87 03/29/1862 John E. Pattison of Houma, LA for Apparatus
for Clarifying Cane Juice
88 04/14/1862 Augustus McBurthe of Richmond, VA for Mode
of Manufacturing Scabbards
89 05/05/1862 William Hicks of Henderson, TX for Pumps
90 05/10/1862 E.B. Stephens, assignor to J.A. Van Lew of
Charleston, SC for Portable Flat Boat
91 05/10/1862 J.W. Howlett of Greensboro, NC for Breech
Loading Fire Arms
92 05/01/1862 C.A. McEvoy of Richmond, VA for Fuse
93 05/23/1862 C.A. McEvoy of Richmond, VA for Fuse
94 05/03/1862 W.P. Wyley (*W.B. Wylly) and A.M. Barbee of
Savannah, GA for Railroad Car Oil Box
95 06/15/1862 James I. Roberts of White Springs, FL for
Plough
96 05/31/1862 J.G. (*G.J.) Peterson of Marion, NC for Fire
Arms
97 07/10/1862 Robert Buillock of South Mills, NC for
Plough
98 07/22/1862 John Cowdon (*Cawdon) of New Orleans, LA for
Vessel of War
99 07/22/1862 J.A. (*S.A.) LeToudal of Mobile, AL for Tent
100 07/29/1862 John M. Brooke of Richmond, VA for Ship of
War
101 07/29/1862 James E. Watson of Petersburg, VA for
Combined Knapsack and Tent
102 07/31/1862 John Commins of Charleston, SC for Tanning
103 08/01/1862 John Commins of Charleston, SC for Tanning
Vat
104 08/06/1862 William S. Morris, of Lynchburg, VA for
Composition for Galvanic Batteries
105 08/16/1862 J.M. Jackson of Columbus, MS for Chain Link
106 09/25/1862 Lucien Hopson of Lampassas, TX for
Projectile
107 09/26/1862 John M. Brooke of Richmond, VA for
Reversible Hook
[Pg 211]
108 09/27/1862 George Henry of Columbus, MS for Breech
Loading Fire Arms
109 09/29/1862 J.A. LeToudal of Mobile, AL for Instrument
for Leveling Cannon
110 10/01/1862 Augustus McBurthe of Richmond, VA for
Waterproof Cloth
111 10/13/1862 (*10/03/1862) A.J.M.T.O. Clanton of Panola,
MS for Breech Loading Firearms
112 10/13/1862 William Spillman of Prattville, AL for
Bullet Machine
113 10/11/1862 William S. Winfield of Springfield, TN for
Projectile
114 10/15/1862 (*10/14/1862) James C. Patton of Petersburg,
VA for Submarine Battery
115 10/17/1862 John Hollander of Sutherland Springs, TX for
Composition for Toilet Soap
116 10/17/1862 John Hollander of Sutherland Springs, TX for
Compound for Expelling Cattle Worms
117 10/17/1862 John Hollander of Sutherland Springs, TX for
Composition for Washing Soap
118 10/24/1862 James H. Douthatt of Montgomery, VA for
Machine for Making Shoe Pegs
119 11/08/1862 (*11/05/1862) G.H. Whitescarver of Richmond,
VA for Protractor
120 11/08/1862 (*11/05/1862) G.H. Whitescarver of Richmond,
VA for Surveying Instruments
121 11/08/1862 (*11/05/1862) D.R. Williams of Richmond, VA
for Breech Loading Cannon
122 11/10/1862 Charles Mahon of Macon, GA for Postage Stamp
Case
123 11/15/1862 C.A. McEvoy of Richmond, VA for Fuse
124 11/13/1862 J.E. Jenkins of Pelahatchie, MS for Plough
125 11/20/1862 M. Bridges of Memphis, TN for Breech Loading
Cannon
126 12/?/1862 Wiley Futrell of Oxford, GA for Rotary
Plough
127 12/08/1862 J.G. Wire of New Orleans, LA for Machine for
Operating Submarine Batteries
128 12/10/1862 James A. Cameron of Canton, MS for Varnish
129 12/11/1862 Nathaniel Nuckolls of Russell Co., AL for
Army Canteen
130 12/30/1862 E.S. Collins of Aspinwall. VA for Wooden
Soled Shoe
131 12/19/1862 John Henson of Fork Union, VA for Hay Press
132 12/30/1862 Joseph A. Yates of Charleston, SC for
Machinery for Traversing Guns
133 01/03/1863 Alonzo C. Chinn of Mobile, AL for Projectile
[Pg 212]
134 01/07/1863 Henry T. Beard of Emery, MS for Composition
for Finishing Leather
135 01/07/1863 C.A. McEvoy of Richmond, VA for Fuze
136 01/15/1863 George H. Lehner of Richmond, VA for Clamps
for Lathes
137 01/15/1863 George H. Lehner of Richmond, VA for Turning
Lathe
138 01/15/1863 George H. Lehner of Richmond, VA for Lathe
Tool
139 01/15/1863 Henry G. Street of Warren Co., MS for Cotton
Scraper and Plough
140 01/27/1863 William S. Watkins of Houston, TX for Wind
Mill
141 01/15/1863 Lawson G. Peel of Preston, GA for Plough
142 01/20/1863 G.S. Newman, assignor to A.P. Routt
(*Rolett), of Somerset, VA for Plough
143 01/26/1863 R.H. Barrett of Murfreesboro, NC for
Projectile
144 01/26/1863 Thomas Ashcroft of Talledega, AL for Machine
for Making Combs
145 02/02/1863 Charles H. Winston of Richmond, VA for
Method of Constructing Sulphuric Acid
Chamber
146 02/02/1863 B.H. Washington of Hannibal, MO for Lamp
Burner
147 02/14/1863 Henry F. Cromwell of Cynthiana, KY for Gang
Plough
148 02/14/1863 J.H. Tarply of Greensboro, NC for Breech
Loading Fire Arms
149 02/18/1863 D.W. Hughes of Don Juan, AZ for Breech Plug
150 03/10/1863 J.A. Park of Sequin, TX for Tanning
151 03/10/1863 H. Leyden (*A. Legden) of Atlanta, GA for
Revolving Fire Arms
152 03/13/1863 E.S. Cook of Laurel Grove, VA for Plough
153 03/13/1863 Felix Walker of New Orleans, LA for Mode of
Packing Cotton
154 03/20/1863 N.T. Read of Danville, VA for Breech Loading
Fire Arms
155 03/23/1863 James E. Hanger of Staunton, VA for
Artificial Limb
156 03/26/1863 George H. Lehner of Richmond, VA for Sewing
Machine Shuttle
157 03/31/1863 W.D. Mason of Jarratt's Depot, VA for Water
Wheel
158 04/06/1863 George H. Lenher of Richmond, VA for Lathe
159 04/16/1863 O.L. Bayley (*Bailey) of Dallas, TX for Gang
Ploughs
160 04/15/1863 Thomas H. Bacon of Hannibal, MO for
Projectile
161 04/15/1863 Ellison Yerby of Richmond, VA for Machine
for Filling Cartridges
162 04/18/1863 John J. Daly of New Orleans, LA for
Instrument for Measuring Distances
[Pg 213]
163 04/18/1863 C.W. Alexander of Moorfield, VA for Breech
Loading Fire Arms
164 04/20/1863 John B. Norris of Clark Co., VA for Fire
Tongs
165 05/01/1863 T.L. Jones of Natchez, MS for Cotton Tie
166 05/01/1863 T.L. Jones of Natchez, MS for Cotton Tie
167 05/01/1863 (*05/21/1863) Robert Creuzbaur of Travis
Co., TX for Wood Soled Shoe
168 05/04/1863 F.D. Lee of Charleston, SC for Spar Torpedo
169 05/06/1863 R.S. Dunning of Atlanta, GA for Machine for
Cutting Irregular Forms
170 05/09/1863 George H. Lehner of Richmond, VA for Sewing
Machine Shuttle
171 05/20/1863 (*05/21/1863) Sylvester L. Burford of
Lynchburg, VA for Wooden Shoe Sole
172 05/25/1863 Alfred L. Bowen of Winchester, VA for Button
Machine
173 05/25/1863 F.F. Taber of Atlanta, GA for Process of
Producing Stearine from Tallow
174 05/25/1863 William Le Roy Browne of Ivy Depot, VA for
Fuze
175 05/26/1863 Charles C. Bier of New Orleans, LA for
Cotton Tie
176 06/05/1863 Isidor P. Girardy of Augusta, GA for Fuze
177 06/05/1863 A.C. Elder of Winnsboro, SC for Churn
178 06/10/1863 Asa George of Charlotte, NC for Revolving
Fire Arm
179 06/18/1863 S.A. Hinkel of Lewisburg, VA for Tanning
180 06/22/1863 William H. Wilson of Staunton, VA for Match
Cutting Machine
181 07/10/1863 Benjamin M. Cook of Kinston, NC for
Explosive Apparatus
182 07/15/1863 Albert Bloomer, assignor to W.N. Smith of
Richmond, VA for Fuze Gauge and Cutter
183 07/15/1863 John Stillwell of Griffin, GA for Churn
184 07/22/1863 Charles Knowlton of Talboton, GA for Machine
for Cutting Shoe Pegs
185 07/22/1863 Phillip E. Love of Augusta, GA for
Projectile
186 07/25/1863 Miles Waterhouse and William Wheelan
(*Whealan) of Charlotte, NC for Varnish
187 08/05/1863 A. Barbarin of New Orleans, LA for Torpedo
188 08/05/1863 (*08/10/1863) Homer Holland of Charlotte, NC
for Process of Producing Copperas
189 08/10/1863 Hughes, Pendergrass and Snow of Monroe, GA
for Loom
190 08/10/1863 Martin B. Tyler of Richmond, VA for Hominy
Mill
[Pg 214]
191 08/22/1863 H. Conner of Mobile, AL for Projectile
192 08/22/1863 H. Conner of Mobile, AL for Breech Loading
Cannon
193 08/25/1863 A.F. Volck of Nuremburg, Bavaria for Bust of
Lt. Gen. T.J. Jackson, Design
194 08/25/1863 R.J. White and George Lehner of Richmond, VA
for Bullet Machine
195 08/28/1863 Robert Creuzbaur (*Creugbaur) of Austin, TX
for Wooden Sole Shoe
196 08/28/1863 Robert Creuzbaur (*Creugbaur) of Austin, TX
for Half Wooden Sole Shoe
197 08/31/1863 Robert Creuzbaur (*Creugbaur) of Austin, TX
for Torpedo
198 09/21/1863 Z. McDaniel of Glasgow, KY for Torpedo
199 09/10/1863 Thomas Morse of Richmond, VA for Breech
Loading Firearm
200 09/15/1863 E.C. Singer of Port Lavaca, TX for Torpedo
201 08/18/1863 James E. Hanger of Staunton, VA for
Artificial Leg
202 09/21/1863 Z. McDaniel of Glasgow, KY for Torpedo
203 09/24/1863 B.H. Washington of Hannibal, MO for Machine
for Casting Friction Tubes
204 10/06/1863 James Peeler of Bartow, GA for Method of
Repairing Cotton Cards
205 10/07/1863 William H. Hamilton of Mobile, AL for Candle
Moulding Machine
206 10/10/1863 E.S. Alexander of Moorfield, VA for Spur
207 10/13/1863 George S. Smith of Keysville, VA for Loom
208 10/19/1863 Henry Fitzgerald of Norfolk, VA for
Fertilizer
209 10/24/1863 W.N. (*W.H.) Smith of Richmond, VA for Cap
Filling Machine
210 10/26/1863 Isaac Mitchell of Columbus, GA for Cotton
Seed Huller
211 10/25/1863 (*10/28/1863) C. Williams of St. Louis, MO
for Submarine Apparatus
212 10/29/1863 B.H. Washington of Hannibal, MO for Bullet
Swaging Machine
213 10/31/1863 B.H. Washington of Hannibal, MO for Machine
for Cutting and Serrating Friction Wire
214 11/05/1863 B.H. Washington of Hannibal, MO for Machine
for Finishing Cannon
215 11/04/1863 E. Kempe, assignor to himself and Daniel
Hagerty, of Richmond, VA for Grease Lamp
216 11/18/1863 B.H. Washington of Hannibal, MO for
Automatic Lathe
[Pg 215]
217 11/27/1863 (*11/21/1863) Benjamin F. Holloway of
Mobile, AL for Loom
218 11/23/1863 B.H. Washington of Hannibal, MO for Machine
for Casting Cannon
219 11/24/1863 Louisiana Boykin of Glenville, AL for Mode
of Preserving Meat
220 12/24/1863 (*12/14/1863) J.P. Shaw, assignor to W.T.
Chaffee, of Richmond, VA for Horse Shoe
Machine
221 12/29/1863 A.C. Jackson of Richmond, VA for Lubricating
Compound
222 01/02/1864 C.F. Richbourg of Gadsden, SC for
Manufacture of Bagging
223 01/06/1864 R.H.S. Thompson of New Orleans, LA for
Projectile
224 01/21/1864 Harry A. Bennet of Mecklenburg C.H., VA for
Churn Dasher
225 01/27/1864 John Scott of Ocala, FL for Truss
226 01/27/1864 John Scott of Ocala, FL for Projectile
227 02/05/1864 R.S. Sanxay and A. Gomert of Richmond, VA
for Photographic Process for Duplicating
Maps
228 02/08/1864 Thomas C. Brown of Ballsville, VA for Sugar
Cane Crusher
229 02/10/1864 J.E. Garlington of Chambers C.H., AL for
Water Boiler
230 02/13/1864 John R. Maben of Allen Creek, VA for Machine
for Cutting Shoe Pegs
231 02/26/1864 C.E. Smart, Owings, and Taylor of Richmond,
VA for Instruments for Fixing Sights to
Cannon
232 02/29/1864 George W. Powell of Clay Hill, AL for Breech
Loading Cannon
233 03/12/1864 J.E. Cargill of Columbus, GA for Ink
Composition
234 03/16/1864 John H. and J.C. Carlisle of Ringwood, NC
for Instrument for Crooking Card Teeth
235 03/29/1864 Y.A. Minnis of Franklinton, NC for Water
Wheel
236 03/30/1864 J.C. Patton and E. Cuthbert of Petersburg,
VA for Torpedoes
237 04/02/1864 M.L. Parry of Galveston, TX for Steam
Condenser
238 04/07/1864 David S. Cordle of Richmond, VA for Chain
Link
239 04/09/1864 J.E. Garlington of Chambers C.H., AL for
Bridge
240 04/15/1864 J.D. Gresit of Urbana, VA for Instrument for
Calculating Distances
241 04/18/1864 F.G. Smith of Columbia, TN for Sea-Going
Vessel
242 04/20/1864 B.H. Washington of Hannibal, MO for Machine
for Making Wood Joints
[Pg 216]
243 04/27/1864 J.B. Gayle of Larinburg, NC for Mode of
Turning Eccentrics for Railroads
244 05/06/1864 John H. and J.C. Carlisle of Ringwood, NC
for Instrument for Renovating Card Teeth
245 05/20/1864 A. Barbarin of New Orleans, LA for Torpedo
246 06/31/1864 A.D. McCoy of Livingston, AL for Combined
Bed and Tent
247 01/04/1864 David Rawl of Lexington C.H., SC for Machine
for Carding Cotton
248 07/11/1864 William Moon of Richmond, VA for Clock
Torpedo
249 07/21/1864 James Price, assignor to J. and J.W. Tomkins
of Tucker's Pond, SC for Tanning
250 08/11/1864 G.W. and J.H. Wells of Charlottesville, VA
for Artificial Leg
251 07/12/1864 Anna Lewis, executrix of John Lewis, dec'd
of Greensboro, NC for Machine for Ginning,
Carding, and Spinning Cotton
252 08/16/1864 Albert Strasser of Montgomery, AL for
Artificial Leg
253 08/25/1864 James D. Layton of Memphis, TN for
Projectile
254 08/29/1864 B.H. Washington of Hannibal, MO for
Stethoscopic Probe
255 09/06/1864 C. Williams of St. Louis, MO for Torpedo
256 09/07/1864 C. Williams of St. Louis, MO for Torpedo
257 10/05/1864 Richard M. Harvey of New Orleans, LA for
Torpedo
258 10/06/1864 C. Williams of St. Louis, MO for Submarine
Boat
259 10/25/1864 George W. Rains of Augusta, GA for Gunpowder
Steaming Barrels
260 10/26/1864 J.C. Patton of Petersburg, VA for Torpedo
261 10/25/1864 C. Williams of St. Louis, MO for Submarine
Boat
262 11/10/1864 D.M. Somers and H. Dabney of Lynchburg, VA
for Projectile
263 11/16/1864 Thomas B. Taylor of Montgomery, AL for
Machine for Making Cotton Rolls
264 11/22/1864 A.T. Purejoy of Forrestville, NC for Wooden
Shoe Sole
265 11/23/1864 A.T. Purejoy of Forrestville, NC for Binding
Last
266 10/17/1864 W.N. Smith of Richmond, VA for Percussion
Cap Rammer
REISSUE
RE1 10/28/1863 C. Williams of St. Louis, MO for Submarine
Apparatus


[Pg 217]
EXAMPLE OF A CONFEDERATE PATENT

Confederate States of America Patent No. 100
filed May 2, 1862; issued June 29, 1862

No. 100
Confederate States of America

To all to whom these letters patent shall come:

Whereas John M. Brooke, of Richmond, Virginia, has alleged that he has invented a new and useful improvement in ships of war, which he states has not been known or used before his application; has made oath that he is a citizen of the Confederate States; that he does verily believe that he is the original and first inventor or discoverer of the said improvement, and that the same hath not, to the best of his knowledge and belief, been previously known or used; has paid into the treasury of the Confederate States the sum of forty dollars, and has presented a petition to the Commissioner of Patents, signifying a desire of obtaining an exclusive property in the said improvement, and praying that a patent may be granted for that purpose:

These are, therefore, to grant according to law to the said John M. Brooke, his heirs, administrators or assigns, for the term of fourteen years from the 29th of July, 1862, the full and exclusive right, and liberty of making, constructing, using, and vending to others to be used, the said improvement, a description whereof is given in the words of the said Brooke in the schedule hereunto annexed, and is made a part of these presents.

In testimony whereof, I have caused these letters to be made patent, and the seal of the Patent Office has been hereunto affixed.

Given under my hand at the city of
Richmond, this 29th day of July,
in the year of our Lord 1862

(signed) T.H. Watts
Attorney General

Countersigned and sealed with the
seal of the Patent Office.

Rufus R. Rhodes
Commissioner of Patents

[Page 217 illustration: Seal of the Confederate Patent Office [portrait of Jefferson Davis and legend "Our First President", surrounded by "Seal of the Patent Office" and "Confederate States of America"]

[Pg 218]
[Annexed specification:]

To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, John M. Brooke, a lieutenant in the Navy of the Confederate States, have invented a new and improved form of vessel, to be iron-clad, and if desired (armed) with cannon; and I do hereby declare that the following is a full and exact description thereof, reference being had to the annexed drawings making a part of this specification in which Figure I is a deck plan; Figure II a sheer plan, and Figure III a body plan.

The nature of my invention consists in so constructing the hull of the vessel that her bow and stern A and B, Figures I and II, shall each extend beyond the forward and after ends of the shield C, which protects crew and guns, sufficiently to give the sharpness necessary to the attainment of high speed, and the buoyancy to support the weight of iron covering the shield and sides of the vessel without increase of draft. Being submerged, all that part of the hull not covered by the shield is protected by the water from the projectiles of an enemy. The shield proposed for such improved form of vessel is of wood, covered on the exterior with iron, the surface inclined at such an angle as will permit the guns to be worked in the usual manner and yet deflect projectiles impinging upon it. This angle will be between 40 and 50. The eaves of the shield may be about two feet under water. To divide and prevent the water over the submerged part of the vessel from banking up at the forward or after ends of the shield in going ahead or astern, thereby retarding her progress and perhaps preventing the use of the bow or stern gun, a false bow and stern or tanks are constructed upon the submerged portion of the vessel corresponding more or less in form with the hull below. The false bow and stern may be decked, in which case they should not be so high above water as to interfere with firing of the bow and stern guns. These tanks may be used as reservoirs of water by which the draft of the vessel may be regulated at will. The stem, being submerged, may be fitted as a ram to strike the wooden bottoms of iron-clad vessels. This plan of construction is applicable in plating effectually ships built in the usual manner; it being simply necessary to remove the upper works and to cut them down forward and abaft the shield sufficiently to submerge the ends when down to the load-line, as illustrated in the case of the Confederate States steamer Virginia, which vessel was constructed in accordance with the plan herein set forth, furnished by me on the 23rd day of June, 1861, to the Honorable S.R. Mallory, Secretary of the Navy, to William P. Williamson, Chief-Engineer Confederate States Navy, and John L. Porter, Constructor Confederate States Navy, the two latter having been directed by the Honorable Secretary of the Navy, in conjunction with myself, to devise an iron-clad vessel. And this plan was applied to the Merrimac [Pg 219] in preference to constructing a new vessel of eight or ten feet draft, in consequence of the impossibility of procuring in time boilers and engines suitable to the purpose. The boilers of the Merrimac were good, and as the chief-engineer was of opinion that the engines could be speedily repaired, it was considered expedient to apply the plan to her.

Claim

What I claim as my invention, and desire to secure by letters patent, consists in so constructing the hull of a vessel that her bow and stern shall each extend under water beyond the forward and after ends of the shield C, which protects the crew and guns, sufficiently to give the sharpness necessary to the attainment of high speed and the buoyancy to support the weight of iron applied without an inconvenient increase of draft.
John M. Brooke
Lieutenant C.S. Navy

Witnesses:
George Minor, Commander, C.S.N.
Charles J. Ost

[Annexed drawings]

{Page 219 illustration: The three figures from the Brooke patent}


[Pg 220]
EXAMPLE OF A CIVIL-WAR ERA UNITED STATES PATENT [footnote 2]

United States of America Patent No. 35,846
Issued July 8, 1862
No. 35,846
The United States of America


To All to Whom These Letters Patent Shall Come:

Whereas, Theodore R. Timby of Worcester, Massachusetts, has alleged that he has invented a new and useful Improvement in Revolving Battery-Towers, which he states has not been known or used before his application, has made oath that he is a Citizen of the United States, that he does verily believe that he is the original and first inventor or discoverer of the said Improvement and that the same hath not, to the best of his knowledge and belief been previously known or used, has paid into the treasury of the United States the sum of Thirty dollars and presented a petition to the Commissioner of Patents signifying a desire of obtaining an exclusive property in the said Improvement and praying that a patent may be granted for that purpose,

These are Therefore to grant according to law to the said Theodore R. Timby, his heirs, administrators or assigns for the term of seventeen years from the eighth day of July one thousand eight hundred and sixty two the full and exclusive right and liberty of making, constructing, using and vending to others to be used the said Improvement, a description whereof is given in the words of the said Theodore R. Timby in the schedule hereunto annexed and is made a part of these presents,

In Testimony whereof, I have caused these Letters to be made Patent and the Seal of the Patent Office has been hereunto affixed, Given under my hand at the City of Washington this eighth day of July in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty two and of the Independence of the United States of America the eighty seventh.

Caleb B. Smith
Secretary of the Interior

Countersigned and sealed with the
Seal of the Patent Office

[Page 220 illustration: Seal of the U.S. Patent Office]

David P. Holloway
Commissioner of Patents


[Pg 221]
[Annexed schedule]
To all whom it may concern:

Be it known that I, Theodore R. Timby, of Worcester, in the county of Worcester and State of Massachusetts, have invented an Improvement in Revolving Towers, to be stationed on land or water for defensive or offensive warfare; and I do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear and exact description of the same, reference being had to the annexed drawings, making a part of this specification, in which

Figure 1 is an elevation of the tower, showing the embrasures and lookout; Fig. 2, a vertical section of the same; Fig. 3, a perspective view of the bed-plate and central shaft with its appendages; and Fig. 4, a top view of the commander's platform with its fixtures of telescope sight, hand-wheel, and signal-pulls.

In a revolving tower without special provisions the commander's platform or station must be fixed thereto and revolve therewith. When, therefore, it is desirable to concentrate the fire upon a fixed point or object, this necessitates, if that officer would keep his vision upon the object attacked, his constant progression in a direction contrary to that of the revolution of the tower. So, too, if the commander would keep a vigilant watch in all directions, as would be requisite in an attack upon water, or in an attack from both land and water, for instance, he would be compelled to fly from one point to another, and often, in consequence of the opposition revolution of the tower, his progress might be fatally retarded. It is my present purpose to overcome these difficulties, and with this view I combine with my revolving tower a central independently revolving shaft, upon the top of which, and in close proximity to the lookout, is arranged the commander's platform or station, which is under his constant control, and may at his option be revolved to the right or the left, or suffered to remain stationary, no matter what may be the condition of motion imparted to the tower, or whether it be in a state of rest.

To enable others skilled in the art to make and use my invention, I will proceed to describe its construction and operation.

My revolving tower, whether placed on land or water, is constructed entirely of iron or steel plates of any desirable thickness either in the particulars or aggregate; or it may be backed up or lined with timber, or with other suitable material. Its form may be cylindrical or conico-cylindrical, a truncated cone, or a pyramid, and it should be covered with a bombproof roofing, having a lookout at or near the top of the tower, which latter may consist of a slot or aperture through the walls or ramparts around its entire circumference, interrupted only at such points as is necessary to support the roof, which may be dome-formed, or something in the shape of a flattened bell, in which case, if preferred, the lookout may be formed through the barrel thereof. The tower may have one or more tiers of guns, but it will be found generally that one tier is all that a sea-going vessel will need or bear. The guns slide in and out of battery upon radial ways, and of course [Pg 222] their extreme number in each tier will be regulated by the circumference of the walls. The tower revolves upon its foundation or base around its vertical axis by steam or other power, and through the instrumentality of well-known or other mechanical agents, so that all its guns may be concentrated upon any point of the compass, follow a moving object, or attack a stationary one, the time occupied in the revolution of the tower being sufficient to allow the guns to cool for repeated discharges. From within a hollow pivot which forms the eye or center of the foundation or base of the tower, and around which the tower revolves, rises a [Pg 223] vertical shaft having proper bearings, whose top bears the commander's platform or station, and to which an independent rotation is given by means of a shaft with a hand-wheel attached to its upper end, extending down along the central shaft from the commander's station to a fixed collar attached to the said central shaft, where it is stepped, and has, a little above the step, a pinion which gears into a circular rack on the inside of the hollow pivot. This arrangement admits of an independent revolution of the platform at the will and by the exertion of the commander, and he can, of course, turn himself to any point desired while the tower continues its separate revolution or remains still.

[Page 222 illustration: Figure 1 of Timby patent]

[Page 223 illustration: Figure 2 of Timby patent[
[Pg 224]
Such is a general description of the improvement I now claim as new.

I shall next proceed to specify those elementary constituents which give to my combination its vitality, not meaning by this to limit myself to the exact mechanical means described for imparting independent action to the tower and central shaft, nor to confine myself to the precise arrangement represented, but to signify that, having pointed out and described one method of carrying into effect my invention, I shall claim all methods when the joint and individual operation of my tower and central shaft is as indicated.

[Page 224 illustration: Figures 3 and 4 of Timby patent]
[Pg 225]
In the case of a land-tower the ground is excavated for the purpose of receiving the strong masonry or iron foundation necessary to support the central railway-tracks A A', but for a water-tower the tracks, consisting of two concentric castings, cast whole or in sections, are located about three feet below the deck of the floating battery or gun-boat, so that only about two-thirds of the attitude of the tower will be exposed above. From the center of this foundation, or from the center of the track, rises the pivot or short shaft B, which is cast or otherwise made hollow to receive the circular rack a, pinion b, and shafts c and d. The driving-shaft D, carrying the pinion E, has its bearing in the foundation upon which the railway-tracks are laid, and extends to the motor, which is situated from under the tower a proper distance, and on land is located in a bomb-proof vault. To the base of the tower is fastened the large wheel F, by means of the hangers c, having teeth on its under face with which the teeth of the pinion E mesh. The tracks A A' being of unequal radii, the friction rollers d revolve, each series independently of the other, on the shafts e, whose bearings are in the base of the revolving tower and in the hangers g. Friction-rollers l are also arranged around the well G, bearing against the pivot or short shaft B, to prevent lateral deflection of the tower as well as to lessen friction. The well or curb G, which is constructed concentrically with the axis of the tower, receives at its base the hollow pivot or shaft B, and through it and the hollow pivot or shaft passes the shaft C, which is stepped at h, and carries upon its upper end the platform H with its curb I, upon which the commander stands and turns himself to any desired point of the compass by means of the hand-wheel i, whose shaft C', extending along down side the shaft C, is stepped in the fixed collar or bearing k, and carries the pinion d, which meshes with the circular rack a. A lookout, m, is cut in the barrel of the dome above the commander's station or through any other point thereof, or through the top of the rampart or outer wall, the circumference of the platform H being increased and its elevation diminished accordingly.

From this description it will be observed that the commander of the tower may have an unobstructed view, the lookout m being practically unobstructed during the entire revolution of the tower, and that he may change the direction of his view at will or remain stationary, and this independently of the revolution of the tower.

Having thus described my invention and pointed out the manner in which it operates, what I claim therein as new, or desire to secure by Letters Patent of the United States, is --

A revolving tower for land or water, designed for offensive or defensive warfare, when combined with an independently rotating shaft, upon the top of which is arranged the commander's platform or station, as described.
Theodore R. Timby

Witnesses:
John H. Shugert
Edm. F. Brown


[Pg 226] FINDING COPIES OF CIVIL-WAR ERA PATENTS

Although at least 266 patents were issued by the Confederate Patent Office, almost all of the records in the office were destroyed in the Evacuation Day fire near the end of the war. A copy of the specification and drawings for the individual patents was attached to the original patent document as issued to the inventor. Surprisingly few of these documents have been located, probably fewer than ten, although there may be many more in trunks in attics across the South. The general rule is, if you want a particular Confederate patent, you probably cannot find it.

Patents issued by the United States Patent Office (or Union Patent Office) during the war years (and before and after the war years) are much more accessible. Printed copies of almost all of the patents issued since 1836, and some issued before 1836, are available in the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (PTO) Public Search Room in Arlington, Virginia, in chronological order on microfilm, and also classified according to subject matter. These same patents are available, either in bound volumes or on microfilm, in Patent Depositories throughout the country. The locations of such depositories is given in each weekly issue of the Official Gazette of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office. If one knows the patent number or date of issue of a patent being sought, a copy of the patent can be easily obtained. In fact, if the patent number is known, the PTO will currently supply a copy of it for $3.00 by mail. This price, which was once five cents during the 1930s, is still subject to change.

There are easy indexes for twentieth century patents which allow one to find a patent knowing only the inventor's name or even the assignee's name. However, for patents from the Civil War era, and for some years afterwards, there are no easy indexes by inventor's name. The best that can be done is to go to the Annual Report of the Commissioner of Patents year by year, where an annual index by inventor's name is given. A nearly complete set of these reports is available on open shelves in the Public Search Room in Arlington. A complete set is available in the National Archives, recently in the main Archives building next to Archives Metro Station on Pennsylvania Avenue in Washington, D.C. Some of the records of the Archives are about to be moved to suburban Maryland, and whether these reports are to be among those moved is not clear.

The original files for issued patents are sometimes preserved, and arrangements can be made in the Attorney's Room at the Public Search Room in the PTO to see these files. There is much delay in obtaining old files, and a trip to the National Archives in Suitland, Maryland, may be necessary.



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