CHINA AND JAPAN
BEING A NARRATIVE OF THE CRUISE OF THE
U. S. STEAM-FRIGATE POWHATAN
IN THE YEARS
1857, '58, '59, AND '60
INCLUDING AN ACCOUNT OF THE
JAPANESE EMBASSY TO THE UNITED STATES
ILLUSTRATED WITH LIFE PORTRAITS
EMBASSADORS AND THEIR PRINCIPAL OFFICIALS
[WOODCUT OF POWHATAN]
LIEUT. JAMES D. JOHNSTON, U.S.N.
LATE EXECUTIVE OFFICER OF THE POWHATAN
BALTIMORE: CUSHINGS & BAILEY
Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1860, by Charles Desilver in the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Eastern District of Pennsylvania
Stereotyped by J. Fagan . . . . . Printed by Crissy & Markley
To COMMODORE JOSIAH TATTNALL and CAPT. GEO. F. PEARSON, U. S. Navy, and to the Officers generally, who served under their command on board the U.S. Steam-frigate Powhatan, during her late cruise on the coasts of China and Japan, this work is respectfully dedicated, as a slight mark of the kind and friendly feelings with which they are regarded by
Yielding with unfeigned reluctance to the repeated and earnest persuasions of my friends, who appeared to me to overrate my capabilities, I consented to gratify not only them, but, according to Job, the desire of those who count me as an enemy, by writing a book. It is not a scientific book -- a book of erudite research and statistical records, nor yet a book replete with eloquence or well-rounded periods. It is a simple narrative of the most interesting occurrences, personal, professional, diplomatic, and national, which came under my observation in the course of two years and three months' service as the Senior Lieutenant, or Executive Officer, of the Flag-ship of the East India and China Squadron, during the most eventful era that has occurred on that station within the last century.
I have written almost entirely from memory, having only the scanty assistance afforded by my own letters to my wife during absence. It may, therefore, appear to those who are already acquainted with the events of the cruise, that many incidents have been omitted which would have given additional interest to the narrative; but in the total absence of notes, and my desire to complete the undertaking as speedily as possible, that I might be enabled to meet other pressing engagements, must be found my excuse for any such defects.
This being my first attempt at authorship, I earnestly crave the charitable forbearance of critics, promising most faithfully and cheerfully, not to repeat the infliction upon their more learned sensibilities.
J. D. JOHNSTON
The "Powhatan" is commissioned -- Ordered to convey ex-President Pierce and lady to Madeira -- Sails with unusual dispatch -- Arrival at Madeira -- Hospitalities of J. Howard March, Esq. -- Pleasant stay at Funchal -- Departure for St. Helena -- Sight the Canary Islands -- Arrival at St. Helena -- Description of an excursion to Longwood -- Napoleon's Tomb -- Sail for Cape Town -- Collision with a Dutch ship -- Run short of coal -- Dangerous situation -- Table Bay ... PAGE xx
Arrival at Cape Town -- Romantic scenery -- Table Mountain and the Table-cloth -- Excursion to Constantia -- Remarkable tree -- the vineyards -- Manner of expressing the grape juice -- Description of Cape Town -- Ascent of the Table Mountain -- Sail for Mauritius -- Tombs of Paul and Virginia -- Botanical garden -- Sail for Singapore -- Accident to machinery -- Stop at Acheen -- A suicidal plot -- Arrival at Singapore -- Dinner at the Prussian Consul's -- Residence of a Chinese gentleman -- Curious animals -- Fight with a tiger -- Mixed nationalities -- Religious toleration ...... xx
Arrival at Hong Kong -- Unfortunate again in a pilot -- Ship stormed by Chinese tailors, compradors, etc. -- Com. Tattnall transfers his flag to Powhatan -- Sailing for home of San Jacinto -- A "fast boat" -- Old Achin's family -- Amusements at Hong Kong -- Rice fields -- Sail for Gulf of Pecheelee ........ xx
Meet the Mississippi -- Arrival at Shanghai -- Appearance of the town -- American missionaries -- Sail for the Gulf -- Steam frigate Minnesota -- Sudden squall -- Tragic result -- Captain Dupont's valet kidnapped by the Chinese -- Valorous rescue by his gallant master -- Shabby treatment of American officers on board the gunboat "Woodstock" -- Return of Minister Reed from Tientsin -- Salute to the Fourth of July -- Participated in by all the foreign men-of-war -- Sail for Japan ..... xx
Arrival at Nagasaki -- Lovely scenery -- Sham forts -- Singular boats -- Visit from Japanese officials -- Present of fruits, poultry, etc., to Commodore Tattnall from the Governor -- The "Jack of Clubs" -- Visit to the Governor -- Smiling welcome from the natives -- Description of the Governor's residence -- Dress of the high officials -- Happy looking people -- Their courteous manners -- Female dress -- The bazaars -- Tempting goods -- Heathen temples -- The wax-plant -- Japanese riding-school -- Early intercourse with the Dutch -- National traits -- Domestic life -- Visit of the Governor to the Powhatan -- Liberty to the crew -- Extensive purchases by the officers. ... xx
Sail for Simoda -- Magnificent Scenery -- Fusi-yama -- A Native Pilot -- Description of the place -- Visit from Consul-General Harris -- Attention of the Imperial family to Mr. Harris during his Illness -- Lacquer Ware -- Proceed to Yedo with Mr. Harris -- Attempt of Japanese officials to head us off -- Commissioners visit the Ship -- The Treaty signed -- English Jealousy at the consummation of this event -- Return to Simoda -- Public Bathing-houses -- Christian Worship in a heathen temple -- Return to the coast of China. ... xx
Arrival at Woosung -- At Shanghai -- More sufferings from Chinese pilots -- Chow-chow water -- Collision with a French ship -- Cholera and deaths on board -- Bearer of despatches sent with Japanese Treaty -- Visit to the Taou-tai -- Chinese collation -- Music -- Visit of the Taou-tai to the ship -- Departure for Woosung -- For Nagasaki -- Arrival at Nagasaki -- The Minnesota's arrival there with Minister Reed -- Donker Curtius, Dutch Minister -- Pic-nic to Mr. Reed -- Trip to the interior -- Japanese funeral -- Beautiful scenery -- Japanese honesty -- Long stay at Nagasaki -- Death of the Tycoon -- Temples -- Tea-houses -- Arrival of Baron Gros -- Russian frigate -- Return to Shanghai, or Woosung. ... xx
Reach Woosung -- Escape from Typhoons -- Departure for Hong Kong -- Quick passage -- Arrival -- Meet the Mississippi and Germantown -- The Minnesota arrives -- Court Martial -- Dispersion of the Squadron -- Trip to Whampoa -- Canton -- "Chops" -- Chinese pirates -- Christmas on board a man-of-war -- Arrival at Macao -- Give liberty to the crew -- Wretched accommodations on shore -- The Cave of Camoens -- Luxuriant Valley -- Sail for Hong Kong -- Quick trip over -- Return to Macao -- The 22d of February -- Hong Kong again -- The Mississippi sent to Japan -- Rumors of War -- Orders from Navy Department -- Towing of Germantown -- Sail for Singapore. ... xx
Arrival at Singapore -- Lord Elgin -- H.B.M.S. Esk -- Rainy Weather -- Sail for Malacca -- Our English Pilot -- An impartial "empire" -- Arrival at Malacca -- Description of Town and Country -- Visit to the Shore -- Establishment on board -- Ancient Ruins -- The native town -- Ball at the Stadt-house -- Seedy Beaux -- Low Tides -- Detention of the Ship -- Sail for Penang -- Arrival at Penang -- Ball on board -- Visit to Government Hill -- Beautiful Scenery -- The Town -- Climate and Productions -- Beautiful Scenery -- The Town -- Climate and Productions -- Province of Wellesley -- Admiral Hope and the British Minister -- The "Chesapeake" -- Naval Titles -- Salutes -- Arrival of the Minister -- Establishments on Shore -- Sail for Hong Kong -- Minister's Character -- Arrival at Hong Kong -- Charter of Toeywan -- More Passengers -- Sail for Shanghai. ... xx
Sail for Ningpo with chartered steamer in tow -- Insufficiency of our Naval force -- The Chusan Islands -- Ningpo -- Another passenger -- Bad weather -- Heavy rolling -- Ship ashore -- Receive a pilot and get off -- Anchor near Woosung -- Visit to Shanghai -- Escort of Minister Ward to visit the Imperial Commissioners -- Return of his Visit -- Delay at Shanghai -- The Allied Envoys -- Arrival and departure of the Allied forces bound to the Gulf of Pecheelee -- Hon. Townsend Harris -- Sail for the Gulf -- Preliminaries of the battle of Taku -- Description of same -- Flag-officer Tattnall's conduct on the occasion -- Reciprocal courtesies between that officer and Admiral Hope -- Appearance of the scene of action the following day --The Chinese defences -- Visit to Pehtang -- Sympathy with the English -- Their gallant conduct -- The Fourth of July.
Interesting features connected with departure of Embassy to Peking -- Mr. Ward's interviews with Hangfuh -- Chinese soldiery -- Pehtang -- Withdrawal of Allied forces from the Gulf -- Arrival of Governor-General of Siberia in Russian steamer America -- His visit to Pehtang in the Toey-wan -- Preparations for departure of the Embassy -- The names of those who composed it -- Chinese "chariots" -- Horrible roads -- The Embassy on the Pei-ho -- Tungehau -- Arrival at the Capital -- Interviews with the Commissioners -- Long discussion on the ceremonies of an audience with the Emperor -- Slight concession to Mr. Ward -- Changes from former usages -- Chinese estimation of the Emperor's character -- Mr. Ward's refusal to kneel before him -- The Kotau -- Chinese incredulity and duplicity -- The Russian Minister -- Disappointment -- Kweiliang's quandary -- Mr. Ward's solution -- The President's letter -- The Emperor's rescript -- Kweiliang and Hwashana -- Return of Embassy to Pehtang -- Exchange of the Treaty -- Death of Rev. Mr. Aitchison -- Sail for Shanghai -- "Short commons" during the absence of the Embassy.
Remarks on the Occurrences in the Gulf of Pecheelee -- Arrival at Woosung -- Reply of the Emperor of China to the President's letter -- Sail for Nagasaki, with Minister Ward on board -- Unique suit of Armor -- Accident to the Machinery -- Sail for Kanagawa -- Yokuhama -- Rapid growth of the latter place -- Arrival at Yedo -- Description of the place -- Police arrangements -- Residences of the hereditary Princes -- Trade between Japan and Shanghai -- Sail for Hong-Kong -- Arrival of the Hartford -- Preparations for the Embassy on board the Powhatan -- Sail for Kanagawa.
Arrival at Yokuhama -- Visit of the Ambassadors to the Ship -- Lieutenant Brooke ordered to the Candimar -- Fire in Yokuhama -- It is rebuilt on a larger scale -- Agreeable visit to the Prime Minister -- Handsome Presents -- Cordial Adieux -- Romantic Adventure of the Chaplain -- Embarkation of the Embassy -- List of the officials -- Sailing of the Candimar -- Delay of the Powhatan -- The Currency Question -- Final Departure from Japan.
The Japanese at sea -- Visit of the Embassadors to the ward-room -- The "Japs" maintain a polite reserve, and manifest an inquiring spirit -- Brief sketch of the principal Officials -- Tommy -- Arrival at Honolulu -- Delight of the Passengers -- Presentation at Court -- The King and Queen -- Ball at Dr. Guillou's -- Incidents on shore -- Enthusiastic artists -- Entertainments on shore -- Sail from Honolulu -- Arrival at San Francisco -- Great enthusiasm among the Residents -- Hospitable treatment -- The freedom of the City extended -- The Candimar and Lieutenant Brooke --Flag-officer Tattnall's departure for New York in the Mail steamer -- Sailing of the Powhatan for Panama.
Passage to Panama -- Transfer of the Embassy to the Roanoke -- Arrival at Sandy Hook -- Sail for Hampton Roads -- The Embassadors Welcomed by Committee of Reception from Washington -- Visit Fortress Monroe -- Leave for the Capital -- Arrival at the Navy Yard -- Great enthusiasm excited among all classes -- Official Reception by the President -- Ball at the Secretary of State's -- Conference with Medical Men -- Visit the Capitol -- Navy Yard -- Leave for Baltimore -- Philadelphia -- Visit the Mint -- Firemen's Parade -- Leave for New York -- Princely Hospitalities -- Magnificent Ball -- Sail for Japan.
The Empire of Japan -- Its physical and geological formation -- Government -- Religious Orders -- Revenues -- Population -- Manufactures -- Vegetable productions -- Animals -- Manners and Customs of the people -- Speculations on the probable results of the Embassy to the United States, etc.
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