The phrase "rats and mice, and such small deer" is quoted (more or less) from King Lear, III, iv, 151, reading "But mice and rats and such small deer have been in Tom's food for seven long year." An archaic meaning of "deer" was a small mammal.

Dr. S----, who was remarkably handsome, according to Chapter 1, appears to be Dr. John W. Sandford, Jr, Assistant Surgeon, in Chapter 11.

Paul and Virginia refer to characters in a romantic novel Paul et Virginie, written by Jacques Henri Bernardin de Saint Pierre, and published in 1787. Apparently the characters in this novel are entirely fictional, making it problematic how their tombs occurred.

Crapeaus may be a misspelling in French for the plural form of Crapaud, apparently Crapaux. Crapaud literally means "toad," but it apparently also means extremely low class. To be of a lower race than toads (crapaux) is an expression meaning "to be the lowest of the low."

Yusef is apparently a stereotypical name for a coachman. Compare John Ross Browne, Yusef, or the Journey of the Frangi (1853), in which Yusef Simon Badra was a Syrian dragoman, who seemed to be a combination interpreter and wagonmaster.

Captain N---n, whose face was found as a natural feature in a rock, would be Captain William C. Nicholson, of the U.S. Steam Frigate Mississippi.

"Hope deferred maketh the heart poor" is very similar to "Hope deferred maketh the heart sick," from Proverbs 13: 12.

The tycoon (shogun) who died about October 1858 was Tokugawa Iesada (1824-1858) (ruled 1853-1858), who was succeeded by his cousin and adopted son Tokugawa Iemochi (1846-1866) (ruled 1858-1866).

Miaco is said by Johnston to be the city where the Mikado or Emperor was confined. This was clearly taken from Kaempfer, who give the same information. The city where the Mikado actually lived was Kyoto. A map included in Kaempfer's history places Miaco very close to the location of present-day Kyoto.


Candimar = Kanrin Maru. See 4 Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan 151.

Cornelian = Carnelian

Damio = Daimyo

Durienne = Durian.

Fusi-yami = Fuse-yama = Fujiyama.

Kin-sin Island = Kyoshu Island

Kotau = Kowtow.

Nee-e-gata = Niigata

Niphon Island = Honshu Island

Peecheelee = Pechili.

Simoda = Shimoda

Sin-mu-ten-oo seems to be Jimmu tenn , meaning Emperor Jimmu, the traditional first emperor of Japan. Kaempfer wrote that Sin-mu-ten-oo was emperor about 660 B.C.

Sitkokf or Sikoko Island = Shikoku Island

Taikosama, said by Johnston to have assumed the shogunate in 1585, has no exact counterpart in Japanese history. This is obviously taken by Johnston from Kaempfer, who wrote that this was Fide Jos, who afterwards took the name of Taiko or Taikosame in 1598. The closest counterpart seems to be Tokugawa Ieyasu, who assumed the shogunate in 1603, after it had been vacant for many years. Taik is the title assumed by an imperial regent of the realm (possibly a shogun?) after he has passed his office on to his son, sort of a shogun emeritus. Perhaps Sama was an honorary name used by a taik .

Tem-sio-dai-sin comes from Kaempfer, who called him Ten Se O Dai Sin, eldest son and heir of the goddess Isanagi Mikotto. There is no reference to this name in Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan.

Tycoon = Shogun, tycoon being a misnomer

Yedo = Edo, the former name of Tokyo.

Yesso Island = Hokkaido Island

Yokuhama = Yokohama



Aitchison, Rev. William, (1826-1859), Protestant missionary and Chinese interpreter. See Charles P. Bush, Five Years in China, Philadelphia, Presbyterian Publication Committee (ca 1865)

Armstrong, James F., (1817-1873). Commodore, U.S. Navy office in China. See 4 National Cyclopedia of American Biography 315.

Biddle, Thomas, of Philadelphia, U.S. representative in Singapore.

Bowring, Sir John, (1792-1872), Governor of Hong Kong (1854-May 1859). See 2 Dictionary of National Biography 984-988.

Brooke, John Mercer, (1826-1906), Navy Lieutenant commanding Fenimore Cooper. See George M. Brooke, Jr, John M. Brooke's Pacific Cruise and Japanese Adventure, 1858-1860, University of Hawaii Press ca 1986. He later designed the C.S.S. Virginia on the hull of the U.S.S. Merrimac, for which he received Confederate patent number 100.

Bruce, Frederick William Adolphus, (1814-1867), brother of James Bruce, 8th Earl of Elgin. He accompanied his brother to China in 1857. In 1858 he was appointed envoy extraordinary and minister plenipotentiary to China. See 3 Dictionary of National Biography 97.

Bruce, James, 8th Earl of Elgin, (1811-1863). Appointed ambassador extraordinary to China about 1857. See 3 Dictionary of National Biography 104-106.

Camoens, see Luiz Vas de Cam es, next below.

Cam es, Luiz Vas de, (1524?-1580), Portuguese poet, author of The Lusiads.

Cumming, Roualeyn George Gordon, (1820-1866). Referred to as Gordon Cumming, the African Lion Hunter. Born and died in Scotland. Author of Five Years of a Hunter's Life in the Far Interior of South Africa. See obituary, New York Times April 17, 1866, p 5, column 3. Also, see 5 Dictionary of National Biography 298-299.

Cunningham, Robert B., Captain USN (d Dec 1861), commanding ship yard at Mare Island. He was referred to by Johnston as Commodore, but apparently never held that rank.

de Bourboulon, Alphonse, Count (b 1809), French minister to China 1851-1859. See Swisher.

Downing, Thomas, (1791-1866), referred to as the celebrated Downing of Broadway celebrity. Mr. Downing was a black caterer and oysterman who had an eating house at 3 Broad Street. Perhaps he should have been referred to as Downing of Broad Street for the location of his eating house, although he did live at 170 Broadway. He was born in Accomac County, Virginia, the son of slaves who were freed not long after his birth. He came to New York City in 1819 and soon opened his oyster saloon and eating house on Broad Street, for which he was indeed celebrated. See his obituary, New York Times, April 12, 1866, p 5, col 3.

du Pont, Samuel Francis, (1803-1865), Captain (later Rear Admiral), U.S. Navy. See 5 National Cyclopedia of American Biography 50.

Elgin, Lord, see as James Bruce.

Emma, (1836-1885), Consort of King Kamehamaha IV (q.v.)

Gardner, William Henry, (1800-1870) U.S. Naval Officer, captain of the Roanoke. See 2 Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography 598-9

Gros, Jean Baptiste Louis, Baron, (1793-1870). French minister to China. See 11 Grand Encyclopedie 107 and 26 Enciclopedia Universal 1375.

Habersham, Alexander Wylly, (1826-1883), U.S. Navy officer on Powhatan. He resigned from the U.S. Navy on 30 May 1860. See 22 National Cyclopedia of American Biography 95.

Harris, Townsend, (1804-1878), U.S. diplomat who negotiated first treaty with Japan. See 5 National Cyclopedia of American Biography 493.

Heco, Joseph, (1837-1897), shipwrecked Japanese who lived for years in California, became a naturalized American, then returned to Japan, partially via Powhatan. See Joseph Heco, The Narrative of a Japanese; what he has seen and the people he has met in the course of the last forty years, Tokyo, 1895
His Japanese name was
Hamada Hikozo.

Hickman, Robert S. "Beau" (1813-1873) Beau Hickman was an elegant dresser residing in Washington from the time of the Mexican War until his death. He was on familiar terms with many public men. He entertained visitors to Washington with reminiscences. He lived by "borrowing" small sums of money from those he entertained. He was described as the Prince of Loafers, a sponger. See 3 Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography 195. Also see Records of the Columbia Historical Society, Vol 40-41 pages 78-96.

Hope, Rear Admiral James, (1808-1881), British Commander on China Station. See 9 Dictionary of National Biography 1212-1214.

Johnston, James D., author of the book. He was born in Kentucky in 1817, became a midshipman in USN on June 30, 1832, passed midshipman June 23, 1838, lieutenant June 24, 1843, and resigned from USN on April 10, 1861. During the Civil War, he served as a captain in the Confederate Navy. When Admiral Franklin Buchanan was wounded on board the CSS Tennessee at the battle of Mobile bay in 1864, James D. Johnston took command, but later had to surrender the ship and his sword to Admiral Farragut. He was taken prisoner on board the Hartford. He was paroled in Alabama in May 1865 and came to Washington, DC, where he obtained his certificate of amnesty on June 24, 1865. At that time he indicated that he intended to make Baltimore his permanent residence, but he did not appear in the city directories of Baltimore. By 1866 he was living in Mobile, Alabama, where his brother Hamilton R. Johnston already lived, and where he soon became an insurance agent. About 1873 he transferred his insurance agency to Savannah, Georgia, where he lived until he died in Savannah on May 9, 1896. In 1881 he served on a committee to erect a monument over the grave of Commodore Josiah Tattnall. He gave an address to the Georgia Historical Society on April 3, 1882, on Admiral Franklin Buchanan. In February 1886, the son of Admiral Farragut wrote to Johnston, offering the return of the sword surrendered to his father in 1864. Johnston was survived by his daughter, Mrs. Poindexter, of Baltimore, and was buried next to his late wife at Norfolk, Virginia. See Admiral Franklin Buchanan and Civil War Naval Chronology 1861-1865. Also see obituary, The Morning News, Savannah, GA, 5/10/1896.

Kaempfer, Englebert, (1651-1716), went with Dutch traders to Japan in late 1600s, wrote a book in German which was translated into English as The History of Japan, first published in English in 1727. His name was given by Johnston as Kempfer and Koempfer.

Kamehameha IV, Alexander Liholiho, (1834-1863) King of Hawaii

Ledyard, Henry, (1812-1880) in 1860 was the assistant to Secretary of State Lewis Cass.

Marsh, John Howard, U.S. Consul at Funchal, Madiera, born in and appointed from New Hampshire. Salary $#36;1500 per annum. See 1859 Register of Officers and Agents.

Martin, Rev. William Alexander Parsons, (1827-1916), Protestant missionary to China and Mandarin scholar. Wrote Cycle of Cathay (1896), reporting the U.S. embassy visit to Peking made by John Elliott Ward.

McCluney, William J., (1796-1864), Captain USN. He retired from the Navy in December 1861. See 4 Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography 89 and 7 Twentieth Century Biographical Dictionary of Notable Americans in alphabetical order.

Montez, Lola, (1818-1861), assumed name of Marie Dolores Eliza Rosanna Gilbert, born and died in New York, dancer, mistress to King Louis I of Bavaria, wife for a while to British guardsman Stafford Heald, actress in the United States and Australia, resident for a while in California, lecturer, social worker, and author.

Muraviev (Murav'ev), N.N., General. Russian Diplomat whose name is given by Johnston as Mouravief. Swisher refers to him as Count Amurski Muraviev, Russian governor of Eastern Siberia 1860-1861.

Neilson, H.A., private secretary to King Kamehameha IV, who was killed by the king in early 1860. At the time of the visit of the Powhatan to Hawaii, he had not yet died, but had been fatally injured earlier. The king, while at a party and while intoxicated, suddenly arose, pointed his gun at Neilson, and shot him. The king was immediately remorseful and did all that he could to help Neilson, but apparently no adequate explanation was ever offered. See Twombly.

Nicholson, William Carmichael, (1800-1873) Captain USN, commanding U.S. Steam Frigate Mississippi. He retired from the Navy in July 1862. See 4 National Cyclopedia of American Biography 551.

Osborn, Sherard, (1822-1875), commanding H.B.M. Furious. See 14 Dictionary of National Biography 1176-1178.

Ouseley, Sir William Gore, (1797-1866), was a British diplomat in the Americas. See 14 Dictionary of National Biography 1258.

Page, Richard Lucian, (1807-1901) Commander, U.S. Navy, Commanding Germantown, Later a Captain in CSA Navy and Brig. Gen. CSA Army. See 8 National Cyclopedia of American Biography 441.

Pearson, George Frederick, (1796-1867) Captain of the Powhatan. Became Commandant of Portsmouth (NH) Naval Yard, where he remained until death. See 4 Appleton's Cyclopedia of American Biography 692.

Perry, Oliver Hazard II, (d 1870) U.S. Consul, Canton. Not the naval officer from the War of 1812, but the son of Commodore Matthew C. Perry. He became a midshipman in the USN in 1829 and resigned in 1849. He was present with Commodore Perry in Japan in 1854 as his secretary. He became U.S. Consul at Hong Kong in 1855. Born in and appointed from New York state.

Poutiatine, Euphemius V., Vice-Admiral Count, Russian Navy. Russian envoy to China, 1858. Listed in Swisher.

Reed, William Bradford (1790-1876) US Minister to China. See 7 National Cyclopedia of American Biography 533.

Robinson, Sir Hercules George Robert, (1824-1897), 1st Baron Rosmead, Governor of Hong Kong. See 22 Dictionary of National Biography 1172-1175.

Sanders, Beverly C., of San Francisco. Customs officer in 1852. Cared for Heco on his arrival.

Sandford, John W., Jr., Assistant Surgeon USN on Powhatan. He was dismissed from the USN on 29 May 1861.

Semmes, Alexander Aldebaran, (1825-1885) Lieutenant, U.S. Navy, Commanding Toey-wan. See 5 National Cyclopedia of American Biography 470.

Seymour, Michael, (1802-1887), English Admiral in China. See 17 Dictionary of National Biography 1264-1265.

Shock, William Henry, (1821-1905) Chief Engineer, Powhatan. See National Cyclopedia of American Biography 200.

Tattnall, Josiah, (1795-1871) Commodore, U.S. Navy, Commander, China Station. Later Senior Flag Office in Georgia Navy in Civil War. See 5 National Cyclopedia of American Biography 488.

Taylor, Algernon S., U.S. Marine Captain on Powhatan.

Trenchard, Stephen Decatur, (1818-1883) Flag Lieutenant, U.S. Navy. See 10 National Cyclopedia of American Biography 126.

Ward, John Elliott, (1812-1884) U.S. Minister to China. See 1 National Cyclopedia of American Biography 373. Appointed from Georgia. Salary $#36;12,000 per annum. See Register of Officers and Agents for 1859.

Ward, William Wallace, Secretary of U.S. Legation to China. Appointed from Georgia. Salary $#36;300 per year. See Register of Officers and Agents for 1859.

Williams, Samuel Wells, (1812-1884), missionary and Chinese scholar. See 1 National Cyclopedia of American Biography 422. Born in and appointed from New York state. Salary $#36;5000 per annum. See Register of Officers and Agents for 1859.

Wylie, R.C., Hawaiian Minister of Foreign Affairs under Kamehameha IV. See Twombly. Johnston refers to him as Mr. Whylie, Prime Minister to his Government.


Chang Ping-to, Major (brevet colonel), escort of U.S. embassy to Peking. See Swisher.

Chunghau, Chinese who escorted U.S. Embassy to Peking. Johnston gives his name as Tsunghau. S. Wells Williams writes of him as "a Manchu, a pleasant and lively person of 32, who seemed to be on springs, so uneasy and fidgety was he."

Heng-fu (d 1862), treaty negotiator, governor-general of Chilhi. Johnston gives his name as Hangfuh. See Swisher.

Hsüeh Huan, provincial judge of Kiangsu, once Governor of Shanghai. His name was given by Johnston as Sieh.

Hua-sha-na (1806-1859), Chinese treaty commissioner, whose name is given by Johnston as Hwashana. President of Board of Civil Appointments 1848. See Swisher.

Kuei-liang, (1785-1862), Chinese treaty commissioner. His name was given by Johnston as Kweiliang.


Hamada Hikozo, a.k.a. Heco, Joseph. See in American section above.

Hitaka Keizaburo Tameyoshi (b ca 1836), given by Johnston as Hetaka Keisaburo, officer of first rank belonging to censor.

Inoue Kiyonao, Prince of Sinano, (1809-1867). Commissioner of the Japanese treaty. His name was given by Johnston as Ino-oo-ye, Prince of Siano, and in the appended copy of the treaty as Jno-oo-ye, Prince of Sinano. See 3 Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan 310-311.

Iwase Tadanari, Prince of Hego, (1818-1861), Commissioner of the Japanese treaty. His name was given by Johnston as Iwasay, and in the appended copy of the treaty as Iwasay, Prince of Hego. See 3 Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan 310-311.

Kawasaki Domin Tsutomu (b ca 1830), given by Johnston as Cowasaki, one of the physicians.

Kurishima Hikohachiro Shigemata (b ca 1811), given by Johnston as Kurisima Hico-hatsiro, under-officer belonging to censor.

Masuzu Shunjiro Hisatoshi (b ca 1828), given by Johnston as Masudu Sunjuro, under-officer belonging to treasurer.

Matsumoto Sannojo Harufusa (b ca 1830), given by Johnston as Matsmoto Sannojio, under-officer belonging to ambassadors

Miyazaki Ryugen Masayoshi (b ca 1826), given by Johnston as Meodake, one of the physicians.

Murayama Hakugen Atsushi (b ca 1828), given by Johnston as Moriyama, one of the physicians.

Muragaki Yosaburo Norimasa, Lord of Awaji, (1813-1880), Japanese second ambassador, whose name is given by Johnston as Muragaki-Awadsi-no-Kami. He left a diary of the trip to America which has been published several times, included in The First Japanese Embassy to the United States of America, published in Tokyo in 1920 by the America-Japan Society. See 5 Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan 265

Namura Gohachiro Motonori (b ca 1826), given by Johnston as Namoora Gohatsiro, interpreter.

Naruse Zenshiro Masanori (b ca 1821), given by Johnston as Naruse Gensiro, officer of first rank belonging to the ambassadors.

Oguri Mataichi Tadamasa, Lord of Bungo, (1827-1868), Japanese Censor, whose name is given by Johnston as Ogure-Bungo-no-Kami. He was executed at the time of the Meiji Restoration in 1868. See 6 Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan 72.

Osakabe Tetsutaro Masayoshi (b ca 1831), given by Johnston as Osakabe Tetstaro, officer of first rank belonging to censor.

Shimmi Fusajiro Masaoki, Lord of Bujen, (1822-1869), Japanese chief ambassador, whose name is given by Johnston as Simme-Boozen-no-Kami. See 7 Kodansha Encyclopedia of Japan 104.

Shiosawa Hikojiro Shigeyasu (b ca 1811), given by Johnston as Lewo-sawa-Scojero, under-officer belonging to the censor.

Tateishi Onojiro Noriyuki (b ca 1843), given by Johnston as Tateise Onogero (Tommy), interpreter

Tateishi Tokujiro Nagahisa (b ca 1828), given by Johnston as Tateise Tokukjuro, interpreter.

Tokugawa Iesada (1824-Oct 1858), shogun (tycoon) 1853-1858

Tokugawa Iemochi (1846-1866), shogun (tycoon) 1858-1866, cousin and adopted son of former shogun Tokugawa Iesada.

Tsuji Yoshigoro Nobuaki (b ca 1830), given by Johnston as Tuge Hosingoro, under-officer belonging to treasurer.

Tsukahara Jugoro Masayoshi (b ca 1824), given by Johnston as Tsucahara Jhugoro, officer of first rank belonging to ambassadors.

Yoshida Sagozaemon Hisamichi (b ca 1820), given by Johnston as Yosida Sagosaimon, under-officer belonging to the ambassadors.


Callahan, Edward W., List of Officers of the Navy of the United States and of the Marine Corps from 1775 to 1900 (1901)

Kaempfer, Englebert, History of Japan (1727)

Lewis, Charles Lee, Admiral Franklin Buchanan, Baltimore (1929)

Martin, William Alexander Parsons, A Cycle of Cathay, (1896)

Navy Department, Civil War Naval Chronology 1861-1865, Naval History Division, Washington, GPO (1971)

State Department, Register of Officers and Agents of the United States, Civil, Military and Naval, published September 30 of odd numbered years.

Swisher, Earl, China's Management of the American Barbarians (1953)

Twombly, Alexander S., Hawaii and its People: The Land of the Rainbow and Palm, Boston (1899)

The logs of the Powhatan are supposedly in the National Archives.

Johnston's parole is found on National Archives microfilm M260 roll 2, citing Provost Marshal register 294 part 741 page 88

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